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Mold Assessment Association
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MOLD RESOURCES

Have you ever wanted to get everything you need at one convenient place? Well, we’re putting together a fairly comprehensive listing of resources for your use here on our site! As always, if you have suggestions to add to this area of the site, please contact us.

In this section you will soon find a listing of great resources for equipment for mold sampling and testing, remediation equipment, personal protective equipment and even great equipment for running the administrative side of your business. You will also soon find a comprehensive listing of sources that provide literature for both you and your client (but check out our publications first!). For those who are searching for a Who’s Who of Federal and State agencies, we will have that here for you as well. Under affiliated links you will soon find a comprehensive list of services and/or other information regarding mold. And finally, a glossary to help identify or resolve issues related to mold terminology.

WHO'S WHO OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

This glossary is listed alphabetically and includes a listing of environmental acronyms for your use. We hope that the information contained herein will provide helpful educational information about many common fungal genera as well as common industry terminology. For those professionals who are preparing for certification testing, the glossary will be a helpful study aide.

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Absidia sp.

A Zygomycete mold. Allergenic. This mold causes mucorosis in immuno-compromised individuals. This mold’s known sites of infection are the lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.

Acid Aerosol

Acidic liquid or solid particles that are small enough to become airborne. High concentrations of acid aerosols can be irritating to the lungs and have been associated with some respiratory diseases, such as asthma.

Acremonium sp.

(Cephalosporium sp.)

Type I allergenic and Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Associated with Humidifier Lung. This mold is widespread and requires very wet conditions. Also, this mold produces a trichothecene toxin, which is toxic if ingested. This mold was the primary agent identified in at least two houses where the occupant complaints were nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Asexual state of Emericellopsis sp., Chaetomium sp., and Nectripsis sp. molds. This mold produces mycetomas, infections of the cornea and nails. This mold is characterized by small white or pale shades of pink, salmon colonies; membraneous or thinly velvety. This mold can be found in soil, dead organic debris, hay and foodstuffs.

Activated Carbon

A highly absorbent form of carbon, used to remove odors and toxic substances from gaseous emissions or liquid effluent.

Actual Knowledge

Knowledge actually possessed by an individual who is a real person, rather than an entity. Actual knowledge is to be distinguished from constructive knowledge that is knowledge imputed to an individual or entity.

Additional Inspection Services

Those services offered in addition to the mold inspection as defined by MAA standards, including but not limited to the following examples: wood destroying insect-organism and home inspection testing.

Adversely Affect

Constitute, or potentially constitute, a negative or destructive impact.

Air Clearance Testing

The process of measuring the microbial and fungal content of a specific volume of air in a given period of time, and is performed prior to encapsulation of the work area.

Allergen(ic)

Substance (such as mold) that can cause an allergic reaction because of an individual’s sensitivity to that substance. See Anaphylaxis. Response varies with individuals, and is dependent upon factors such as familial predisposition, length and dose of exposure(s), prior sensitization, age and route of exposure. Reactions may vary from immediate (minutes) to delayed (hours to days). Reactions are classified into four types: Type I, II, III and IV, but allergic disease may be caused by more than one type.

Allergic Rhinitis

Inflammation of the mucous membranes in the nose that is caused by an allergic reaction.

Alternaria sp.

This mold is a very common Type I and Type III allergen with an IgE mediated response. This particular mold may cross-react with Ulocladium, Stemphylium, Phoma, and other molds. This mold is often found in carpets, textiles and on horizontal surfaces in building interiors. This mold is often found on window frames. Outdoors, where this mold is commonly found in samples, the mold may be isolated from samples of soil, seeds and plants. The large spore size 20-200 microns in length and 7-18 microns in size, suggests that the spores from this mold will deposit in the nose, mouth and upper respiratory tract. This mold has been related to Baker’s asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This mold is also characterized by colonies of dark olive green to brown; floccose to velvety (heavily sporulating). The species of this mold that is known as Alternaria alternata is capable of producing tenuazonic acid and other toxic metabolites associated with disease in humans or animals. This mold is a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: Type I). Acute symptoms from this mold include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema, nasal lesions, subcutaneous lesions, nail infections; especially in persons with underlying disease or in those taking immuno-suppressing drugs.

Amerospores

Represents a morphological category of mold spores that are produced by many unrelated molds when difficult to analyze by true type. A non-filamentous mold spore with no septations and with no projections longer than the mold spore body (does not include strongly curved mold spores or very long mold spores).

Anaphylaxis

Hypersensitivity to a foreign substance induced by a small preliminary or sensitizing injection or exposure to a substance.

Animal Dander

Tiny scales of animal skin.

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

Appliance

A household device operated by use of electricity or gas. Not included in this definition are components covered under central heating, central cooling or plumbing.

APR

Air purifying respirator.

Arthrinium sp.

About 20 species of this mold are found in soil and decomposing plant material. These mold spores are easily borne by wind. One species of this mold is an allergen. This mold grows well on general fungal media. This mold is white, floccose, spreading, and develops round brown to black mold spore clusters with time.

Ascospores

There are more than 3,000 genera of this mold species and are found everywhere in nature. The mold spores are predominantly forcibly discharged during periods of high humidity or rain. As an allergen they are highly variable, depending on genus and species. As a potential opportunist or pathogen these molds are dependent on genus and species, but the vast majority do not cause disease. The potential for toxin production is very many, again, dependent on genus and species. These molds are frequently found growing indoors on damp substrates.

Aspergillus caesiellus

This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.

Aspergillus candidus

This mold species is found in warm soils, grain and in the secondary decay of vegetation. This mold is associated with respiratory complaints in a recent house investigation. Produces the toxin petulin, which is associated with disease in humans and other animals.

Aspergillus carneus

This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.

Aspergillus clavatus

This mold is found in soils and animal manure. This mold species produces the toxin petulin, which is associated with disease in humans and other animals. This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.

Aspergillus deflectus

This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.

Aspergillus flavus

This mold grows on moldy corn and peanuts. This mold can be found in warm soil, foods and dairy products. Some of the mold’s strains are capable of producing a group of mycotoxins – in the aflatoxin group. Aflatoxins are known animal carcinogens. The toxin is poisonous to humans by ingestion. Exposure to this mold may also result in occupational disease via inhalation. Experiments have indicated that this mold is teratogenic and mutagenic. This species of mold is toxic to the liver. This mold is also allergenic and the mold’s presence is associated with reports of asthma. This mold can be found in water-damaged carpets. The production of the fungal toxin is dependent on the growth conditions and on the substrate used as a food source. This mold is associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis. This mold is occasionally identified as the cause of corneal, otomycotic and naso-orbital infections and lesions.

Aspergillus fumigatus

This mold is a major cause of allergenic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and allergic fungal sinusitis. Both invasive and allergic aspergillosis are caused by this organism. Aspergillosis affects individuals who are immuno-compromised. This mold is considered to be a human pathogen. The mold grows well at 35 degrees Centigrade. This mold is commonly found outdoors in compost piles with temperatures higher than 40 degrees Centigrade, in mild to warm soils and on cereals.

Aspergillus glaucus

This mold species is commonly found outdoors in the winter. This mold is reported to be allergenic. This species of mold is only occasionally pathogenic. This mold is hardy enough that it can grow on leather. This mold species can grow at low moisture levels on grains, sugary food products, meat and wool. The ascomycetous state is Eurotium sp.

Aspergillus nidulans

This mold is found in mild to warm soils and on slowly decaying plants. This mold can produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. This mold toxin has been shown to produce liver and kidney damage in lab animals. This species of mold is associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis and is only occasionally pathogenic.

Aspergillus niger

This mold is a less common cause of aspergillosis. This species of mold has a musty odor. The mold is commonly found in the environment on textiles, in soils, grains, fruits and vegetables. This species of mold causes skin and pulmonary infections and is a common cause of fungal-related ear infections – otomycosis. This mold produces the toxins malformin C and oxalic acid.

Aspergillus ochraceus

This species of mold is found in grains, soil and salted food products. This particular mold is not usually associated with decaying vegetation. This mold produces the kidney toxin ochratoxin A, which may produce ochratoxicosis in humans. This is also known as Balkan nephropathy. The mold toxin is produced at optimum growth conditions at 25 degrees Centigrade and high moisture conditions. The ochratoxin may also be produced by other Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. of molds. Other toxins produced by this species of mold include penicillic acid, xanthomegnin and viomellenin. These are all kidney and liver toxins.

Aspergillus oryzae

This species of mold is only occasionally pathogenic.

Aspergillus parasiticus

Some strains of this mold are capable of producing a group of mycotoxins – in the aflatoxin group. Aflatoxins are known animal carcinogens. The mold toxin is poisonous to humans by ingestion. Mold toxin experiments have indicated that this mold is teratogenic and mutagenic. This mold is toxic to the liver. The production of the mold toxin is dependent on the growth conditions and on the substrate used as a food source.

Aspergillus penicilloides

This mold can grow in areas with low water activity. This species of mold is found in house dust and food.

Aspergillus restrictus

This species of mold is only occasionally pathogenic.

Aspergillus sp.

These species are known to be both Type I and Type III allergenic. Members of this genus of mold cause ear, corneal and respiratory infections. Many of the mold’s species produce mycotoxins that may be associated with disease in humans and other animals. Mold toxin production is dependent on the mold species or a strain within a mold species and on the food source. Some of these mold toxins have been found to be carcinogenic in animal species. Several of the mold’s toxins are considered potential human carcinogens. This mold is a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema. Severe invasive disease is usually associated with immuno-suppressed hosts.

Aspergillus sydowi

This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.

Aspergillus terreus

This mold is found in warmer soil, grains, straw, cotton and decomposing vegetation. This mold species produces the toxins petulin and citrinin that are associated with disease in humans and other animals. Aleurospores 6-7 microns in diameter may also be produced by this mold. This mold species is associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis. This mold is found as an isolate from otomycosis – ear infection, and onychomycosis – infection of fingernails or toenails.

Aspergillus ustus

This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic. Produces the mold toxin austocystins.

Aspergillus versicolor

This mold is commonly found in soil, hay, cotton and dairy products. This mold species produces the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin and cyclopiaxonic acid, among others. These mold toxins cause diarrhea and upset stomach. This mold is a kidney and liver carcinogen. This mold species is only occasionally pathogenic.

Attainment Area

A geographic area in which levels of a criteria air pollutant meet the health-based primary standard (national ambient air quality standard, or NAAQS) for the pollutant. An area may have an acceptable level for one criteria air pollutant, but may have unacceptable levels for others. Thus, an area could be both attainment and non-attainment at the same time. Attainment areas are defined using federal pollutant limits set by the EPA. It has been estimated that 60% of Americans live in non-attainment areas.

Aureobasidium sp.

There are approximately 15 species of this mold which are ubiquitous and cosmopolitan; and these mold species can be found in soil, forest soils, fresh water, aerial portion of plants, fruit, marine estuary sediments and wood. This mold has wet mold spores that can be disseminated by water droplet or wind (when dried out). This mold is a common allergen for Type I allergies and Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis; also connected with Humidifier Fever and Sauna Taker’s Lung. There have been rare reports of isolates from this species of mold from skin lesions, keratitis, spleen abscess in a lymphoma patient, blood isolate from a leukemic patient. This mold is widespread, where moisture accumulates, especially bathrooms and kitchens, on shower curtains, tile grout, windowsills, textiles, and liquid waste materials. This mold grows well on general fungal media samples. This mold is yeast-like, beginning cream to pink, becoming dark brown with age.

Basidiomycetes

Fungal mold spores which are from mushrooms. The specific mushroom species cannot be identified on the culture plate. Many mushroom spores are allergenic.

Basidiospores

These fungi consist of approximately 1,200 genera, which are ubiquitous and cosmopolitan; found in gardens, forests and woodlands. These fungal spores are disseminated by wind; mold spore release (active mechanism) during periods of high humidity or rain. These fungal species are common allergens for Type I allergies and Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Asexual forms of these fungal spores may cause rare opportunistic infections. Mushroom poisoning is usually a result of ingestion. The yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycete. Serpula lacrimans, the agent of "dry rot," and other fungi causing white and brown wood rot, grow and destroy the structural wood of buildings. Poria incrassata causes a particularly destructive dry rot in buildings. Occasionally, a benign, non-wood rotting mushroom will fruit inside a structure, growing in a unique ecological niche if enough moisture is present.

Beauveria sp.

These molds are found worldwide and there are approximately 4-5 species. These species of mold are found in plant debris, soil and dung. They are a parasite of insects. As dry mold spores, they are easily disseminated by wind. These molds are known as allergens for Type I allergies. As a potential opportunist or pathogen there have been rare isolations of this mold from corneal lesions, and lungs from an immuno-compromised patient. This mold has infrequent growth indoors. The mold is a pathogen of silk worms and other insects. This species of mold forms small, mounded delicate colonies, and are often colorless.

Bioaerosols

Described as those airborne particles that are living organisms, and include microorganisms (i.e., culturable, non-culturable, and dead microorganisms) and fragments, toxins, and particulate waste products from all varieties of living things.

Biocide

Substance or chemical that kills organisms such as molds.

Biodegradable

The ability of a substance to be broken down physically and/or chemically by microorganisms.

Biological Agent

Refers to a substance of biological origin that is capable of producing an effect, whether infection or hypersensitivity, irritant, inflammatory or other response.

Biological Contamination

The presence of biologically-derived aerosols, gases and vapors of a kind and concentration likely to cause disease or predispose persons to adverse health effects; and/or inappropriate concentrations of outdoor bioaerosols; and/or indoor biological growth and remnants of growth that may become airborne and to which people may be exposed.

Biological Hazardous Wastes

Any substance of a human or animal origin, other than food wastes, which is to be disposed of and could harbor or transmit pathogenic organisms, including but not limited to pathological specimens such as tissues, blood elements, excreta, secretions, bandages, and related substances.

Biologically Derived Airborne Contaminants

Describes bioaerosols, gases and vapors that living organisms produce.

Bioremediation

Use of microorganisms to remove or detoxify toxic or unwanted chemicals and unwanted organisms in an environment.

Bipolaris sp.

A mold with large spores that deposits in the upper respiratory tract. This species of mold produces the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin, which has been shown to produce liver and kidney damage when ingested by laboratory animals. There are approximately 20 known species of this mold. The mold’s colonies are shades of dark gray to brown.

Blastomyces sp.

This mold is a human pathogen. The mold is commonly found in soil. It is a dimorphic species of mold that has filamentous fungus when grown at 25 degrees Centigrade and a yeast form at 37 degrees Centigrade.

Botrytis sp.

This mold is allergenic for Type I allergies and Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This mold is connected with Winegrower’s lung. This species of mold is parasitic on plants and soft fruits. This mold is found in soil and on vegetables and fruits such as grapes, strawberries, lettuce, cabbage and onions. This mold is also a plant pathogen and saprophyte on flowers, leaves, stems. This mold is only a very rare agent of keratomycosis. This species of mold may be found in conjunction with indoor plants. This mold grows well on all general fungal media samples. The mold colony spreads easily over the surface of a petri dish. This mold may form black sclerotia. This species of mold is associated with allergic symptoms (skin tests). This mold is found primarily in temperate and subtropical regions with approximately 30 species. As a dry mold spore it is easily disseminated by wind and also liberated by rain splash.

Building Related Illness (BRI)

A discrete, identifiable disease, illness or condition in which occupants have a more serious illness that fails to improve when leaving the building and can sometimes be traced back to specific sources of causal agents or pollutants.

By-Product

A material produced without separate commercial intent during the manufacture or processing of other materials or mixtures. May also be a substance created by metabolic reaction of chemical or living organisms, or by the degradation of chemicals, living organisms, or inert products.

CAA

Clean Air Act. Federal law enacted to regulate/reduce air pollution. Administered by the EPA.

Candida sp.

Part of the normal flora of mouth and other mucous membranes in the body. Thrush and other diseases caused by Candida albicans usually occur after prolonged treatment with antibiotics or steroids. The environment is not a likely source of exposure for this fungus. Cells from the organism are usually not airborne. It is an allergen.

Carcinogen(ic)

A general term meaning agents that cause cancer. Also, a specific list of materials compiled by the U.S. Public Health Service that are known or suspected to be carcinogenic.

Cephalosporium sp.

See Acremonium sp.

Ceratocystis/

Ophiostoma Group

There are approximately 56 species, both genera, of these molds. These molds are found in commercial lumber, and are tree and plant pathogens. Wet mold spores are disseminated by insects. As allergens these molds have not been studied. Persons most likely to be affected by these molds would be lumberyard workers or carpenters. However, these molds can be found in most homes built with lumber on areas of wood framing inside the walls. Ophiostoma ulmi mold species is the cause of Dutch Elm Disease. A connection between Ophiostoma and the human pathogen Sporothrix schenckii has been proposed but not yet confirmed.

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (also referred to as Superfund). Specifically, an act that affixed joint, several and strict liability for individuals, corporations and/or owners/operators for any site which has been declared to be an "imminent hazard" to human health or the environment.

Cercospora sp.

There are approximately 2,000 forms of this species of mold, according to the plant host. This mold is a parasite of higher plants, causing leaf spot. As a dry mold spore it is disseminated by wind. As an allergen this mold has not been studied; however, there was one report of human infection in Indonesia. This mold has not been seen as a growth indoors and is common outdoors in agricultural areas, especially during harvest.

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

Chaetomium sp.

There are approximately 81 species of this mold. This is a large ascomycetous mold producing perithecia. This mold species is found in soil, seed, cellulose substrates, dung, and woody and straw materials. This mold is found on a variety of substrates containing cellulose, including paper, paper in sheetrock, and plant compost. The mold spores are found inside fruiting bodies and are forced out an opening and spread by wind, insects and water splash. This mold is Type I allergenic. This species of mold produces an Acremonium-like state on fungal media samples. It is an uncommon agent of onychomycosis (nail infection). This mold also produces the toxins chaetomin and sterigmatocystin. Other compounds produced by this mold include a variety of mutagens. This mold’s small brown "lemon" or "football-shaped" ascospores are distinct.

Chemical Sensitization

Evidence suggests that some people may develop health problems characterized by effects such as dizziness, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness, and nasal congestion that appear whenever they are exposed to certain chemicals. People may react to trace amounts of chemicals to which they have become "sensitized."

Chemostat

Continuous culture system.

Cladosporium fulvum

(Fulvia fulva)

This mold is found on the leaves of tomatoes.

Cladosporium herbarum

This mold is found on dead plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil, paint and textiles.

Cladosporium macrocarpum

This mold is found on dead plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil, paint and textiles.

Cladosporium sp.

(Hormodendrum sp.)

There are approximately 28-40 species of this well-known mold. This species of mold is most commonly identified outdoors. The outdoor numbers of mold spores are reduced in the winter, while the numbers of mold spores are often high in the summer. However, this mold is often found indoors in mold spore number counts less than those outdoors. This mold is a dry mold spore that is formed in very fragile chains and easily dispersed by the wind. This species of mold is a common Type I and Type III allergen. Indoor Cladosporium sp. may be different than the mold species identified outdoors. This mold is commonly found on the surface of fiberglass duct liner in the interior of supply ducts and on moist windowsills. A wide variety of plants are food sources for this mold. This mold can be found on dead plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil, paint and textiles. This mold can cause mycosis. This mold species is characterized by a wide variation in size and shape. This mold has spores with dark attachment scars and some olive to brown pigmentation. Some species of this mold sporulate better than others, and some may need cycles of light in order to produce mold spores. This species of mold produces greater than 10 antigens. Antigens in commercial extracts that are produced by this mold are of variable quality and may degrade within weeks of preparation. This mold is a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: Type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms, chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema.

Cladosporium sphaerospermum

This mold is found as a secondary invader of plants, food, soil, paint and textiles.

Coelomycetes

These types of mold are recovered from a wide range of ecological niches with approximately 700 genera. These molds are saprophytic or parasitic on higher plants, other fungi, other molds, lichens and vertebrates. The mold’s conidial masses may be dry or slimy and are spread by insects, water splash and wind. These molds are known as allergens for Type I allergies. Cross-reactivity is suspected between Phoma and Alternaria mold species. As a potential opportunist or pathogen these molds are dependent on genus and species, but the vast majority do not cause disease. These molds can be found on many substrates indoors, including ceiling tile, linoleum. However, these molds may have little effect on the indoor air because in many genera the mold spores are not readily disseminated by air currents. These molds are sometimes referred to as "pycnidial formers." The mold spores are often formed in sticky masses or exuded in mucoid droplets.

Combustible Liquid

Any liquid having a flash point above 100 degrees Fahrenheit as determined by tests.

Conidobolus sp.

This mold causes a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa (entomophthoromycosis).

Container

Any portable device in which a material is stored, transported, treated, disposed or otherwise handled.

Contamination

The degradation of natural water, air or soil quality as a result of man’s activities, to the extent that its usefulness is impaired.

Contingency Plan

A document setting forth an organized, planned and coordinated course of action to be followed in order to prevent pollution in case of fire, explosion or discharge of hazardous waste constituents which could threaten human health and the environment.

Cradle-To-Grave

The tracking of the source, quantity, concentration and type of hazardous waste from generation through final disposition.

Critical Barrier

A seal applied to an opening connecting a remediation area with an adjacent space that is not included in the containment.

Cryptostroma corticale

This mold is found on the bark of maple and sycamore trees and on stored logs.

Cunninghamella sp.

This mold causes disseminated and pulmonary infections in immuno-compromised hosts.

Curtained Doorway

A device to allow ingress and egress from one room to another while minimizing air movement between the rooms under diminished air pressure.

Curvularia sp.

This mold is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions with approximately 30 mold species. This mold is found on plant debris, soil, facultative plant pathogens of tropical or subtropical plants. As a dry mold spore they are disseminated by wind. This mold is commonly allergenic for Type I allergies and relatively common cause of allergic fungal sinusitis. This mold may cause corneal infections. This mold is occasionally the cause of onychomycosis, ocular keratitis, sinusitis, mycetomas, pneumonia, endocarditis, cerebral abscess and disseminated infection. Most cases are from immuno-compromised patients. This mold can be found on a variety of indoor substrates. This species of mold grows well on general fungal media; most isolates need "light/dark cycling" for sporulation. The mold colonies are shades of gray to brown; mold spores are distinctively curved.

Decomposition

Breakdown of a material or substance (by heat, chemical reaction, electrolysis, decay or other processes) into parts or elements or simpler compounds.

Decontamination

The process of making any person, object or area safe by absorbing, destroying, neutralizing or making harmless by removing biological or chemical agents.

Decontamination Enclosure System

A series of connected rooms under diminished air pressure with curtained doorways between any two adjacent rooms, for the microbial remediation of materials and equipment, and the decontamination of workers.

Dematiaceous

Mold spores that are brown to black from melanin pigments.

Demolition Debris

Concrete, brick, asphalt, and other such building materials discarded in the demolition of a building or other improvement to property.

Detrimental Conditions

Any condition that, in the opinion of the inspector, may likely be unsafe, unhealthy, or in any way harmful to the inspector, the occupants or to components of the property.

Dictyospore

A multicellular mold spore with septations that intersect in more than one plane. These are also called muriform mold spores.

Didymospore

A mold spore with only two cells (does not include strongly curved mold spores or very long mold spores).

Domestic Waste

Solid waste, garbage and rubbish, which originate in residential areas.

Dreschlera sp.

There are approximately 20 known species of this mold. This mold is found on grasses, grains, soil, plant debris and decaying food. This mold is occasionally a cause of Phaeohyphomycosis, including keratitis, sinusitis and osteomyelitis. These infections most often occur in immuno-compromised persons, although infections also occur in normal hosts. One case of brain abscess was reported in an immuno-compromised patient. This mold can occasionally cause a corneal infection of the eye. This mold species is a Type I allergen and common cause of allergic fungal sinusitis. Dry mold spores are disseminated by wind. This mold grows on a variety of substrates. Mold colonies are shades of dark gray to brown.

Due Diligence

The process of inquiring into the environmental characteristics of a parcel of commercial real estate or other conditions, usually in connection with a commercial real estate transaction. The degree and kind of due diligence vary for different properties and differing purposes.

Dump

A land site at which waste is disposed of in a manner that does not protect the environment, is susceptible to open burning, or is exposed to the elements, vermin and/or scavengers.

Dwelling

Structure or portion thereof used for residential habitation.

Effluent

(1) Solid, liquid or gas wastes which enter the environment as a by-product of man-oriented processes. (2) The discharge or outflow of water from ground or sub-surface storage.

Encapsulation

The sealing of contaminated surfaces involving the application of an encapsulant material. The complete enclosure of a waste in another material in such a way as to isolate it from external effects such as those of water or air.

Enclosure

The procedure necessary to completely enclose contaminated material under diminished air pressure with impermeable, permanent barriers.

Environmental Lien

A charge, security, or encumbrance upon title to a property to secure the payment of a cost, damage, debt, obligation or duty arising out of response actions, cleanup or other remediation of hazardous substances or petroleum products upon a property.

Environmental Professional

Person possessing sufficient training and experience necessary to conduct a site reconnaissance, interviews and other activities in accordance with this practice, and from the information generated by such activities, having the ability to develop opinions and conclusions regarding recognized environmental conditions in connection with the property in question. An individual’s status as an environmental professional may be limited to the type of assessment to be performed or to specific segments of the assessment for which the professional is responsible. The person may be an independent contractor or an employee of the user.

Environmental Site Assessment

(ESA)

The process by which a person or entity seeks to determine if a particular parcel of real property (including improvements) is subject to recognized environmental conditions. At the option of the user, an environmental site assessment may include more inquiry than that constituting appropriate inquiry or, if the user is not concerned about qualifying for the innocent landowner defense, less inquiry than that constituting appropriate inquiry. An environmental site assessment is both different from and less rigorous than an environmental audit.

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency. Federal agency with environmental protection regulatory and enforcement authority. Administers the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, FIFRA, RCRA, TSCA, CERCLA and other federal environmental laws.

Epicoccum sp.

This mold is a common allergen for Type I allergies. No cases of infection have been reported in humans or animals by this mold species. However, this mold produces antibiotic substances such as flavipin, epicorazine A & B, indole-3-acetonitrile. There are 2 known species of this mold, and as a dry mold spore can be disseminated by wind or released by hygroscopic movement. This mold is found in plants, soil, grains, textiles and paper products. This mold is also a secondary invader of damaged plant tissue. This mold is found on many different substrates indoors, including paper, textiles and insects. This mold grows well on general fungal media, although sporulation may be strain-dependent. Mold colonies typically have orange reverse pigment.

Epidermophyton sp.

This mold causes infections of skin and nails.

Equipment Decontamination Enclosure System

A decontamination enclosure system of materials and equipment, typically consisting of a designated area of work, a washroom and an uncontaminated area.

Evaluate

To ascertain, judge, or form an opinion about an item or condition.

Exserohilum sp.

See Drechslera and Bipolaris. There are approximately 8 species of this mold that are known to exist.

FIFRA

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. Regulations administered by EPA under this act require that certain useful poisons, such as chemical pesticides, sold to the public contain labels that carry health hazard warnings to protect users.

Flood Plain

The lowland that borders a river, which is usually dry, but is subject to flooding when the stream overflows its banks.

Foundation

The base upon which the structure or a wall rests; usually masonry, concrete, or stone, and generally partially underground.

Fumonisms

A group of mycotoxins produced by certain mold species of Fusarium. The most prevalent and toxic is Fumonisin B1, which is a known contaminant of corn and corn products. Studies have confirmed its role in serious animal diseases and have suggested carcinogenic, gastrointestinal and negative developmental effects in humans.

Function

The action for which an item, component or system is specially fitted or used or for which an item, component or system exists; to be in action or perform a specific task.

Functional

Performing, or able to perform, a function.

Functional Drainage

A drain is functional when it empties in a reasonable amount of time and is not subject to overflow when one of its supply faucets is left on.

Functional Flow

Sufficient water flow to provide uninterrupted supply to the highest, unrestricted tap (faucet furthest from the source) when a single intermediate, unrestricted tap is operated simultaneously with uninterrupted flow.

Fungi

Fungi are neither animals nor plants and are classified in a kingdom of their own. Fungi include some molds, some mildews, some yeasts, mushrooms and puffballs. Fungi and molds may be used interchangeably by some professionals, but it is not recommended. It is estimated that millions of species of fungi exist.

Fungicide

Substance or chemical that kills fungi.

Fusarium sp.

There are approximately 50-70 species of this mold. These species have wet mold spores disseminated by insects, water splash and wind when dried out. This mold is common in soil. This mold is found on a wide range of plants. This mold is often found in humidifiers and occasionally on a variety of substrates. This mold requires very wet conditions. Mold colonies are shades of pink to orange to purple. The mold’s colors are due to both soluble pigments and mycelial pigments. Several species in this genus of mold produce potent trichothecene toxins. The trichothecene (scirpene) toxin targets the following systems of the human body: circulatory, alimentary, skin and nervous systems. This mold species produces vomitoxin on grains during unusually damp growing conditions. Symptoms occur either through ingestion of contaminated grains or inhalation of the mold spores. This mold genera produces hemorrhagic syndrome in humans (alimentary toxic aleukia). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dermatitis and extensive internal bleeding characterize this syndrome. This mold is Type I allergenic. This mold is also frequently involved in eye, skin and nail infections. This mold species causes keratitis, endophthalmitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma and disseminated infection in immuno-compromised patients, infections in burn victims, and systemic opportunistic infections on severely disabled hosts.

Geotrichum sp.

This mold is a common contaminant of grains, fruits, dairy products, paper, textiles, soil and water, and often present as part of the normal human flora. The mold species Geotrichum candidum causes a secondary infection (geotrichosis) in association with tuberculosis. This rare disease causes lesions of the skin, bronchi, mouth, lung and intestine.

Gliocladium sp.

A mold that is structurally similar to Penicillium sp. This mold is Type I allergenic.

Glucans

Major structural components of fungal cell walls. They are being investigated as contributors to symptoms reported in structures. Some effects are headache, and non-specified respiratory symptoms.

Habitable

In a condition suitable for human habitation.

Habitable Spaces

Rooms or spaces used for sitting, sleeping, bathing, toilets, eating, cooking or other human day-to-day activity. Not considered habitable spaces by MAA standards are storage spaces, unfinished attics and crawl spaces.

Hazardous Materials

In a broad sense, any substance or mixture of substances having properties capable of producing adverse effects on human health or safety.

Hazardous Waste

A waste, or combination of wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, toxicity, corrosiveness, mutagenicity or flammability, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics may (1) cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness; or (2) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.

Hazardous Waste Site

A location where hazardous wastes are stored, treated, incinerated, or otherwise disposed of.

Heat Source

A heat source may be a radiator, convector unit, radiant panel, heat pipe, ductwork, grille, register or other device(s) from which heat is intended to be emitted.

Helicospore

A strongly curved or spiral mold spore.

Helminthosporium sp.

This mold is reported to be allergenic. This species of mold is rare. See the species Drechslera, and Bipolaris.

HEPA

High Efficiency Particulate Air

HEPA Filter

A High Efficiency Particulate Arrestor filter capable of trapping and retaining 99.97% of particulates larger than 0.3 microns in size.

HEPA Vacuum Equipment

Vacuuming equipment equipped with a HEPA filtration system.

Histoplasma sp.

A mold that has filamentous growth at 25 degrees Centigrade and yeast growth at 37 degrees Centigrade. This mold is a human pathogen. Also, this mold species may be associated with birds.

Humicuola sp.

This mold grows on products with a high cellulose content. These molds are also found in soil and on plant debris.

Humidifier Fever

A respiratory illness caused by exposure to molds producing toxins from microorganisms found in wet or moist areas in humidifiers and air conditioners. Also called air conditioner or ventilation fever.

Hyaline Mycelia

Sterile mycelia that is white or transparent. No fruiting structures are produced by the mycelia. Visual identification of these organisms is not possible. Often associated with allergic symptoms.

Hypersensitivity

Great or excessive sensitivity.

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

A group of respiratory diseases that cause inflammation of the lung (specifically granulomatous cells). Most forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis are caused by the inhalation of organic dusts, including molds.

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

As defined by the EPA: "an optimum indoor environmental condition that contains the lowest possible levels of a broad scope of indoor air pollutants to satisfy the health, comfort and well-being of the vast majority of occupants in any type building at any given time. It is a dynamic interplay within the building environment. This interplay occurs between the building envelope, systems, furnishings, and space utilization by occupants and equipment. IAQ is also influenced by the surrounding environmental conditions."

Inspected Property

The readily accessible areas of the structures, site, and components included in the inspection process.

Intended Function

Performing or able to perform the usual function for which an item is designed or fitted; and be in a condition (state of repair) appropriate to this function, its age and location. Or, performing or able to perform the usual function for which a professional is designated or certified.

Isolate

A strain of an organism brought into pure culture (i.e., isolated) from a specific environment.

Landfill

A place, location, tract of land, area or premises used for the disposal of solid wastes as defined by state solid waste regulations. The term is synonymous with the term solid waste disposal site and is also known as garbage dump, trash dump, or similar term.

Lichen

A symbiotic association between green or blue-green algal cells and fungal hyphae.

Local Street Directories

Directories published by private (or sometimes government) sources that show ownership, occupancy, and/or use of sites by reference to street addresses. Often local street directories are available at libraries of local governments, colleges or universities, or historical societies.

Memnoniella sp.

There are approximately five known species of this mold and its’ dry mold spores are disseminated by wind. This mold can be found in plant litter, soil, many types of plants and trees. This mold is found on a variety of substrates indoors. This mold is cellulolytic. This species of mold is also very closely related to Stachybotrys. M. echinata mold species produces acetic acid. This mold produces tricothecenes and griseofulvins. This mold grows on general fungal media, forming dark gray to black colonies. The mold spores do not slime down but are held in long chains.

Mitigation

Synonymous with "remediation." Procedure(s) to decrease or eliminate fungal genera from microbiologically contaminated building material(s). Includes enclosures, removal and encapsulation. The process of removing or eliminating the environmental problem.

Microsporum sp.

This mold causes ringworm in humans.

Mold

Molds are a group of organisms that at the present time belong to the kingdoms of Fungi and Protista. Some professionals may use the terms fungi and mold interchangeably, but it is not recommended. The MAA is of the opinion that Molds should be in a kingdom of their own. There are hundreds of thousands of species of mold. Molds reproduce by making spores. Mold spores waft through the indoor and outdoor air continually. When mold spores land on a damp spot indoors, they may begin growing by digesting the by-products left behind by other organisms on any substance, providing moisture and oxygen are present.

Mold Inspection

In the mold inspection, the process by which a certified mold inspector visually examines the readily accessible areas and components of a home utilizing accepted Standards of Practice as a guideline.

Mold Range

A specialized analytical report which compares results of outdoor air samples to typical outdoor mold spore level values across the North American continent for the month of the report and the typical outdoor mold spore level values for an entire year for the State in which the samples were taken.

Monilia sp.

This mold is allergenic. This species of mold produces soft rot of tree fruits. Other members produce a red bread mold. This mold is infrequently involved in corneal eye infections.

Moniliaceous

Colorless or with some pigment other than melanin.

MVOC

Microbial volatile organic compound; a chemical produced by molds that may have a moldy, musty, earthy, rotten or sour odor.

Mucor sp.

There are approximately 50 known species of this mold. This mold is disseminated by rain splash. This mold species is often found in soil, dead plant material, horse dung, fruits and fruit juice. This mold is also found in leather, meat, dairy products, animal hair and jute. This mold is a Zygomycete that is Type I and Type III allergenic (skin and bronchial tests). This organism and other Zygomycetes will grow rapidly on most fungal media samples and frequently fill the petri dish. This mold species may overgrow and inhibit other molds present. They are most often round, colorless mold spores, variable in size and are sometimes angular. This mold may cause mucorosis in immuno-compromised individuals. The sites of infection from this mold are lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.

Muriform Spores

Also known as dictyospores. These are multicellular mold spores with septations that intersect in more than one plane.

Myrothecium sp.

There are approximately eight known species of this mold, and as a wet mold spore, is disseminated by insects, water splash and wind when dried out. This mold can be found on grasses, plants and soil; on decaying fruiting bodies of Russula mushrooms. This mold has been identified as an indoor contaminant. However, occurrence of this mold is rare. As an allergen this mold species has not been studied and there have been no reports of human infection, but the mold produces the tricothecenes verrucarins and roridins. The mold spores have a grayish green pigment.

Myxomycetes

There are approximately 45 known genera of mold in this category. These organisms have both dry and wet mold spores and wind disperses the dry fruiting body of the mold spores, whereas the wet amoebic phase is motile. These molds can be found on decaying logs, stumps and dead leaves, particularly in forested regions. These molds are occasionally found indoors. However, these molds do not grow on general fungal media and are difficult to distinguish from the smuts. These molds are reported to be allergens for Type I allergies, but there have been no reports of human infection. These molds have an interesting life cycle, which includes a wet mold spore phase and a dry mold spore phase. When conditions are favorable, these molds move about like amoebae, resembling primitive animals. When conditions are not favorable these molds form a resting body (sclerotium) with dry, airborne mold spores. These molds belong to the kingdom of Protista.

Necrotroph

A fungus that kills the cells of a living host and then utilizes them as a source of nutrients.

Nigrospora sp.

This mold genera is especially abundant in warm climates with approximately 4-5 known species. These species of mold have an active discharge mechanism that does not require wind or rain. This mold can be found in decaying plant material and soil, but rarely found growing indoors. This mold is allergenic for Type I allergies, and with very rare reports of human infection. This mold is distinctive as being white, floccose, spreading, and developing black mold spore clusters with time.

NIOSH

National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety

Non-Sporulating

These types of molds can be found growing indoors on a variety of substrates. However, individual identification is not possible without sporulation. Potentially, all molds are capable of producing a non-sporulating state. Many molds do not adapt well to routine mycologic media and growth conditions and, therefore, may not sporulate. Specialized media, light-dark cycles, UV light and low or high temperatures may be required to stimulate sporulation. Unless distinctive spore types are formed, identification may not be possible. Frequently, non-sporulating colonies are produced by Basidiomycetes (mushrooms) that usually do not produce fruiting structures on lab media. They may produce clamp connections and/or arthroconidia within their mycelia. Non-sporulating mycelia may appear as colorless or pigmented (brown).

Observe

To see through visually directed attention.

Operate

To cause equipment, systems or supplies to perform their intended function(s).

Organic Compounds

Chemicals that contain carbon. Volatile organic compounds vaporize at room temperature and pressure. They are found in many indoor sources, including many common household products and building materials.

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor. Federal agency with safety and health regulatory and enforcement authorities for most U.S. industry and business. Code of Federal Regulations Title 29.

Paecilomyces sp.

Approximately 9-30 species of this mold, depending on taxonomic system. This mold is commonly found in soil and dust, less frequently in air. This mold is also found in decaying plant material, composting processes, legumes and cotton seeds. Some species of this mold parasitize insects. P. variotii variety of this mold can cause paecilomycosis. This mold is linked to Wood-Trimmers disease and humidifier-associated illnesses. This mold is Type I and Type III allergenic. Some members of this genus of mold are reported to cause pneumonia. Mycotic keratitis in conjunction with corneal implants, nosocomial infections, endocarditis, infections in immuno-compromised patients are reported. This mold may produce arsine gas if growing on arsenic substrate. This can occur on wallpapers covered with Paris Green. This mold produces 8 toxins, and is closely related to Penicillium. Some species of this mold produce distinctive pigments such as ocher and lilac, but do not product blue or green colonies.

PAPR

Powered Air Purifying Respirator

Papulospora sp.

This mold is found in soil, textiles, decaying plants, manure and paper.

Pathogen(ic)

An agent that causes disease, especially a microorganism such as a bacterium, fungi or mold; capable of causing disease.

Penicillium sp.

There are approximately 200 species of this mold that are known to exist. A wide number of organisms have been placed in this genera of mold. Identification to species of this mold is often difficult. The mold spores are dry and easily disseminated by wind and insects. These mold spores serve as a food source for storage mites. Mold colonies are usually shades of blue, green and white. This genera of mold is often found in aerosol samples. This mold is commonly found in soil, house dust, food, cellulose, grains, paint and behind paint, compost piles, carpet, wallpaper and wallpaper glue, decaying fabrics, moist chipboards and interior fiberglass duct insulation; Penicillium glabrum has been isolated from diesel fuel. This mold grows abundantly in water-damaged structures. This mold causes hypersensitivity pneumonitis and allergic alveolitis in susceptible individuals. This mold is Type I and Type III allergenic (skin). Some species of this mold produce mycotoxins. This mold is a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: Type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema. This mold has been associated with Cheese Washer’s Lung, Woodman’s Lung, and Moldy Wall Hypersensitivity. Penicillium marneffei is a cause of human infection. This mold produces 19 known various toxins by the different species. Penicillium commune produces the MVOC 2-methyl-isoborneol, a heavy musty odor.

Periconia sp.

There are approximately 20 species of this mold and the mold spores are dry and disseminated by wind. This mold can be found in soil, blackened and dead herbaceous stems and leaf spots, grasses, rushes and sedges. This mold is almost always associated with other molds. One rare case of mycotic keratitis was reported. This mold is rarely found growing indoors. Mold colonies are similar to those of Cladosporium sp.

Phoma sp.

This mold is a common indoor air allergen of Type I and Type III. This mold is similar to the early stages of growth of Chaetomium sp. and is characterized by sticky, oozy masses of mold spores. The species of this mold are isolated from soil and associated plants (particularly potatoes), and are a fruit parasite. There are approximately 80 species of this mold, which are disseminated by insects and by wind when dried out. This mold produces pink and purple spots on painted walls. This mold has antigens that cross-react with those of Alternaria sp. This mold will grow on butter, paint, cement, rubber, ceiling tiles, on the reverse side of linoleum, paper, wood, wool and on foods such as rice. This mold causes phaeohyphomycosis, a systemic or subcutaneous disease. This mold is associated with Shower Curtain Hypersensitivity, mycotic keratitis, and rare skin infections.

Phragmospore

A mold spore with two or more transverse septa (does not include strongly curved mold spores or very long mold spores).

Pileus

The cap of a mushroom.

Pithomyces sp.

This mold grows on dead grass in pastures and is common on dead leaves of more than 50 different species of plants, especially leaf fodders, soil. There are approximately 15 known species of this mold, and as a dry mold spore are disseminated by wind. While rarely found growing indoors, this mold can grow on paper. This mold produces the toxin sporidesmin. As an allergen this mold has not been studied and there have been no reports of human infection. This mold causes facial eczema in ruminants (sheep). This mold grows readily on general fungal media; sporulation may be slow and may require a "light/dark cycle." Mold colonies are shades of tan to brown.

Plasmodium

A mass of protoplasm formed by slime molds.

Plastic Sheeting

Polyethylene sheet material of the thickness indicated used for protection of walls, floors, etc., and used to seal openings into work areas. Also used to control ground moisture and to assist in proper crawl space air flow.

Pollution

Contamination of air, water, land or other natural resources that will or are likely to create a public nuisance or to render such air, water, land or other natural resources harmful, detrimental or injurious to public health, safety or welfare, or to domestic, municipal, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational, or other legitimate beneficial uses, or to livestock, wild animals, birds, fish or other life.

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

Pressed Wood Products

A group of materials used in building and furniture construction that are made from wood veneers, particles, or fibers bonded together with an adhesive under heat and pressure.

Property

The real property that is the subject of the environmental site assessment described in this practice. Real property includes buildings and other fixtures and improvements located on the property and affixed to the land.

Pycnidium

A hollow, flask-shaped structure lined with conidiophores bearing conidia.

Radial Growth

Growth from the center, e.g., of a fungal or mold colony.

RCRA

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. A federal act which gives EPA the authority to develop a nationwide program to regulate hazardous waste from "cradle to grave." Enacted in 1976, the act was established to "protect human health and the environment from the improper handling of solid waste and encourage resource conservation." Hazardous wastes under RCRA are either characteristic, e.g., ignitable or corrosive, or they are listed as hazardous and therefore regulated under EPA.

Readily Accessible

An item or component is readily accessible if, in the judgment of the inspector or investigator, it is capable of being safely observed or occupied, without movement of obstacles, detachment or disengagement of connecting or securing devices, or other unsafe or difficult procedures to gain access.

Remediate

To remove. This does not mean to fix or to improve or to replace. It only means to remove, to take away, to take out; to get rid of defective or corrupted components. Synonymous with "mitigation." Also, the act of removing contaminated material(s) from a structure and depositing them in an appropriate location.

Repair

To fix or to improve by fixing; to make an adjustment or change to workable condition.

Replace

To improve or make an adjustment or change through the exchange of one item or kind with another, which may or may not be of the same type, make or model; to bring to original likeness.

Reportable Quantity

The minimum quantity of hazardous waste generated as a result of a discharge or spill, which must be reported to the EPA or the National Response Center.

Representative Number

A sufficient number to serve as a typical or characteristic example of the item(s) inspected.

Resting Spore

A mold spore with prolonged survival potential, or a mold spore that is in a state of dormancy.

Restoration

To bring to original likeness or condition, whether by repair or replacement. This does not mean to extract, remove or remediate. It only means to put back to original condition.

Rhinocladiella sp.

There are approximately 10 known species of this mold. This mold is a dry mold spore disseminated by wind. This mold can be found in soil, herbaceous substrates and decaying wood. Occasionally this mold is found on a variety of substrates indoors. One species of this mold is called the cellar mold, most commonly found on brickwork and adjacent timber in wine cellars. This mold has very small, slow-growing colonies and may be overlooked on crowded petri dishes or slides. As an allergen this mold has not been studied and produces no known potential toxins. As a potential opportunist or pathogen there have been 3 reported cases of subcutaneous infection.

Rhizoid

A fine filamentous structure that grows into the substrate and anchors the cell or surface mycelium.

Rhizomucor sp.

This Zygomycete mold is allergenic. This mold may cause mucorosis in immuno-compromised individuals. This mold occupies a biological niche similar to Mucor sp. This mold is often linked to occupational allergy. This mold may cause mucorosis in immuno-compromised individuals. The sites of infection are the lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.

Rhizopus sp.

There are approximately 12 species of this mold; dry mold spores are disseminated by wind and are found in forest and cultivated soils, decaying fruits and vegetables, animal dung, and compost. This Zygomycete mold is a major Type I and Type III allergen. This mold may cause mucorosis in immuno-compromised individuals. This mold occupies a biological niche similar to Mucor sp. and can be found on a variety of substrates. This mold grows well on general fungal media samples and frequently fills a petri dish. This species of mold may overgrow and inhibit other molds. Some of the mold spore structures are visible to the naked eye as black dots in the middle of white, cottony mycelia. This mold is often linked to occupational allergy. The sites of infection are the lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye and skin, and infection may have multiple sites. This mold is the principal cause of zygomycosis, which occurs primarily in patients suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis (rhinocerebral disease), malnutrition, severe burns, or who are immuno-compromised.

Rhodotorula sp.

A reddish yeast mold typically found in moist environments such as carpeting, cooling coils and drain pans. In some countries mold is the most common yeast genus identified in indoor air. This yeast mold has been reported to be allergenic. Positive skin tests have been reported. This yeast mold has colonized terminally ill patients.

Rubbish

Solid wastes which are not liable to rot, consisting of both combustible and non-combustible wastes, including paper, wrappings, cardboard, tin cans, yard clippings, wood, glass, bedding, crockery and similar materials.

Rusts

There are approximately 14 families of this mold, with 105 known genera and more than 5,000 species. Rusts have both wet and dry mold spores. Wind disperses the urediospores, teliospores, basidiospores and aeciospores. The basidiospores and aeciospores have an active spore release mechanism. They can be found in grasses, flowers, trees and other living plant materials. Rusts do not grow indoors unless their host plants are present. The rust molds are parasitic plant pathogens and need a living host for growth. Rusts have a complex life cycle, producing five different mold spore types in two different plant hosts. Rusts do not grow on ordinary laboratory media; they require a living host plant for growth. The rust molds are known allergens for Type I allergies, but there have been no reports of human infection.

Saprotrophic

Using dead organisms as a source of nutrients.

Saccharomyces sp.

This yeast mold is allergenic and associated with Baker’s Yeast.

Scolecospore

A very long mold spore (includes both septate and non-septate mold spores).

Scopulariopsis sp.

This mold may produce arsine gas if growing on arsenic substrate. This can occur on wallpapers covered with Paris Green. This mold has been found growing on a wide variety of materials including house dust. This mold is associated with Type III allergies.

Sensitization

Repeated or single exposure to an allergen that results in the exposed individual becoming hypersensitive to the allergen.

Septum

A cross-wall within a hyphae.

Serpula lacrymans

This mold is a common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: Type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms. Chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema.

Shut Down

An area, building, system or equipment is considered to be shut down when its normal control device(s) will not cause it to become activated or operational, or when conditions or changes prevent its normal operational/functional use.

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)

Term that usually refers to a set of symptoms or a condition that affect some number of building occupants during the time they spend in the building and can be alleviated, diminish, temporarily disappear or go away during periods when they leave the building for the day or on weekends. Specific causal agents are not usually defined. Cannot be traced to specific pollutants or sources within the building.

Site

The property on which a facility is located. Two or more pieces of property which are divided only by public or private right(s)-of-way and which are otherwise geographically contiguous are considered a single site.

Smuts

There are two families of this mold with more than 50 genera and over 950 species. Wind disperses the powdery brown teliospores of smut. These molds are found on cereal crops, grasses, weeds, other fungi and molds, and on other flower plants. Smuts do not usually grow indoors. Smut molds are parasitic plant pathogens that require a living host for the completion of their life cycle. Smuts are members of the Basidiomycetes and have two mold spore types: teliospores (dry, powdery stage) and basidiospores (yeast stage). Smut molds are known to be allergens for Type I allergies, but there have been no reports of human infection by the plant parasitic forms.

Solid Waste Disposal Site

Place, location, tract of land, area, or premises used for the disposal of solid wastes as defined by state solid waste regulations. The term is synonymous with the term landfill, and is also known as a garbage dump, trash dump or similar term.

Solvent

A chemical compound that is capable of dissolving another substance and may itself be a hazardous substance, used in a number of manufacturing/industrial processes including but not limited to, the manufacture of paints and coatings for industrial and household purposes, equipment clean-up, and surface degreasing in metal fabricating industries.

Spore

The means by which molds reproduce. Mold spores are microscopic and vary in shape and size (2-100 micrometers). Mold spores may travel in several ways: they may be passively moved (by a breeze or water drop), mechanically disturbed (by a person or animal passing by), or actively discharged by the mold (usually under moist conditions or high humidity).

Sporobolomyces sp.

There are approximately 10 known species of this mold. These are wet mold spores. Ballistospores are forcibly discharged during high humidity. This mold can be found on tree leaves, soil, rotting fruit, and other plant materials. This mold is associated with lesions caused by other plant parasites. This mold can be found growing on a variety of indoor substrates. This mold requires very wet conditions. This mold grows well on general fungal media. Mold colonies are commonly in shades of peach, pink and salmon; characteristic satellite mold colonies are produced around the main mold colony as a result of forcibly released ballistospores. This mold is a known Type I and Type III allergen. As a potential opportunist or pathogen, this mold has been implicated as a cause of dermatitis. Other disease associations are unclear. If cultural sampling is conducted on a rainy day, indoor mold spore counts may be very high. If repeat sampling is carried out on a dry day at the same location, mold spore counts may be drastically reduced.

Sporothrix sp.

This mold causes sporotrichosis. Usually only in populations which are immuno-compromised.

Sporotrichum sp.

This mold is allergenic. See also Sporothrix sp. There is some taxonomic confusion between these two genera. This particular genera of the mold does not cause sporotrichosis.

Stachybotrys sp.

There are approximately 15 species of this mold. This mold is a wet mold spore that is disseminated by insects and water splash. However, this mold can be disseminated by wind when dried out. This mold is found in soil, decaying plant substrates, decomposing cellulose, leaf litter and seeds. This mold’s growth is enhanced by manure. This mold is Type I allergenic. This mold produces 9 macrocyclic tricothecenes. This mold is commonly found indoors on wet materials containing cellulose, such as wallboard, jute, wicker, straw baskets and paper materials. Several strains of this mold (S. atra, S. chartarum and S. alternans are synonymous) produce a trichothecene mycotoxin – Satratoxin H – that is poisonous by inhalation. The toxins are present on the mold spores. This species of mold is slow-growing on media. This mold does not compete well with other rapidly growing molds; and as a result, the mold cannot be cultured well and may throw analysis results. The dark colored mold spores grow on building materials with a high cellulose content and a low nitrogen content. Areas with relative humidities above 55% and are subject to temperature fluctuations are ideal for toxin production.

Individuals with chronic exposure to the toxin produced by this mold reported cold and flu-like symptoms, sore throats, diarrhea, headaches, fatigue, dermatitis, intermittent local hair loss, rhinitis, itching, burning sensation in the mouth, throat, eyes and nasal passages, and generalized malaise. The toxins this mold produces will suppress the immune system, affecting the lymphoid tissue and the bone marrow. Animals injected with the toxin from this mold exhibited the following symptoms: necrosis and hemorrhage within the brain, thymus, spleen, intestine, lung, heart, lymph node, liver, and kidney. Affects by absorption of the toxin in the human lung are known as pneumomycosis.

This mold is rarely found in outdoor samples. This mold is also usually difficult to find in indoor air samples unless the mold spores are physically disturbed or if there is (speculation – a drop in the relative humidity). The mold spores are in a gelatinous mass. This mold is slow growing and may not compete well in the presence of other molds. However, when water availability is high for prolonged periods on environmental material, this mold may gradually become the predominating mold, especially on cellulose materials. Appropriate media for growth of this organism will have a high cellulose content and a low nitrogen content. The mold spores will die readily after release. However, the dead mold spores are still allergenic and toxigenic. Percutaneous absorption has caused mild symptoms. There is controversy about toxigenic effects through inhalation of these mold spores or mycelia, and there are many resources available for further reading.

Stemphylium sp.

There are approximately 6 known species of this mold, and as a dry mold spore are disseminated by wind. This mold is isolated from dead plants and cellulose materials. This mold is found in soil, wood, decaying vegetation. Some species of this mold are found on leaves and are plant pathogens. Growth indoors is rare. This mold grows on general fungal lab media. This mold is a known Type I allergen.

Stipe

The stalk of a mushroom or toadstool.

Sump

A pit, cistern, cesspool, or similar receptacle where liquids drain, collect or are stored.

Superfund

(CERCLA) The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 provides the federal government with the mechanism to take emergency or remedial action to clean up both abandoned and existing disposal sites whenever there is a release or potential threat of a release of a hazardous substance that may present imminent and substantial danger to public health and welfare.

Syncephalastrum sp.

This mold causes a respiratory infection characterized by a solid intracaitary fungal ball.

Technically Exhaustive

An inspection is technically exhaustive when it involves the use of measurements, instruments, testing calculations and other means to develop scientific or engineering findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

Threshold Limit Values (TLVs)

Refer to air concentrations of substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all occupants may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse health effects.

Torula sp.

There are approximately 8 known species of this mold and the dry mold spores are disseminated by wind. This mold is found most frequently in temperate regions. This mold can be found in soil, dead herbaceous stems, wood, grasses, sugar beet root, ground nuts and oats. This mold can be found indoors on cellulose-containing materials such as jute, old sacking, wicker, straw baskets, wood and paper. This mold grows vegetatively on general fungal media, but usually requires specialized media for sporulation. This mold is Type I allergenic. There have been no reports of human infections.

Toxic Substances

Chemicals which are subject to the regulations issued under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) by the U.S. EPA (40 CFR); this term is also used in a generic sense to mean "toxic chemicals," "toxic agents," or "toxic organisms."

Trehalose

An oligosaccharide from some fungi and some molds.

Trichoderma sp.

There are approximately 20 species of this mold found in northern alpine to tropical areas. The wet mold spores are disseminated by rain, insects, water splash, and wind when dried out. This mold can be found in soil, decaying wood, grains, citrus fruit, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, paper, textiles, damp wood, pine needles and unglazed ceramics. Indoors this mold can be found on paper, tapestry, in kitchens on the outer surface of unglazed ceramics and on a variety of other substrates. This mold readily feeds off degraded cellulose. This mold often will grow on other fungi and molds. This mold grows well on general fungal media; spreads in a white floccose mat, developing blue-green to yellow-green tufts of mold spores. The T. viride species of this mold has a distinctive coconut odor. This mold produces antibiotics that are toxic to humans and may cause a mycotoxicosis similar to that caused by Stachybotrys chartarum; some of the metabolic substances produced by this mold are closely related to trichothecenes. This mold is a known allergen for Type I allergies and Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Human infections include a pulmonary cavity, peritonitis in a dialysis patient, and a perihepatic infection in a liver transplant patient. This mold is considered an emerging opportunist in immuno-compromised persons. The T. harzianum species of this mold has been reported to produce antifungal trichoriazine compounds. Trichoderma harzianum pellets have been mixed with ground bark to protect trees and vegetable crops against infections from other plant pathogens. The T. viride species of this mold produces cellulase and hemicellulase used in commercial beer, wine and food processing. This mold enhances the aroma in tea and mushroom products. This mold produces tricothecene and cyclic peptides; gliotoxin, isocyanides, T-2 toxin and trichodermin.

Trichophyton sp.

This mold causes ringworm, athlete’s foot, skin lesions, nail discoloration and loss, and beard and scalp flaking.

Trichothecium sp.

This mold is found in decomposing vegetation, soil, corn seeds and in flour. The species of Trichothecium roseum sp. produces a trichothecene toxin that is associated with disease in humans and other animals. This mold is a known allergen.

Tritirachium sp.

This mold is allergenic.

Type I Allergen

Atopic and Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity. Involves localized acute reactions in genetically susceptible individuals to allergens. When the allergen contacts the respiratory tree, nasal mucosa and conjunctiva, it triggers the symptoms of asthma or hay fever.

Type II Allergen

Antibody Dependent Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity. Involves human immunoglobulin antibodies and complements reacting with the antigen or specific target cells that then cause destruction of cells.

Type III Allergen

Immune Complex Mediated Hypersensitivity. Involves a reaction between antigen-antibody and complements that form insoluble complexes at fixed sites. The complexes give rise to acute inflammatory reactions, local damage from vascular permeability changes, and from phagocytes that release granules containing proteolytic enzymes.

Type IV Allergen

Cell Mediated Hypersensitivity. Involves delayed allergic reactions to bacteria, viruses, fungi and molds. Lymphocytes react with antigens to release mediators that produce cellular inflammation.

Ulocladium sp.

There are approximately 9 known species of this mold with a dry mold spore that is disseminated by wind. This mold is found in soil, dung, paint, grasses, fibers, wood, decaying plant material, paper and textiles. This mold’s growth indoors is widespread and found on gypsum board, paper, paint, tapestries, jute, other straw materials and has a high water requirement. This mold grows well on all general fungal media. Mold spore colonies are dark brown to rusty brown, granular to velvety. This mold is known to be a major allergen for Type I allergies. This mold cross-reacts with Alternaria, adding to the allergenic burden of sensitive patients. This mold is known to be a rare subcutaneous tissue infection agent.

Ventilation Rate

The rate at which indoor air enters and leaves a building. Expressed in one of two ways: the number of changes of outdoor air per unit of time (air changes per hour, or "ach") or the rate at which a volume of outdoor air enters per unit of time (cubic feet per minute, or "cfm").

Verify

To confirm or substantiate.

Verticilium sp.

This mold is found in decaying vegetation, on straw, soil and arthropods. This mold is a rare cause of corneal infections.

Wallemia sebi sp.

This mold is monotypic. This mold is a dry mold spore disseminated by wind. This mold can be found in soil, foodstuffs, hay, textiles. This mold grows on salted fish. This mold is also found in sugary foods, salted meats, dairy products and fruits. This mold grows indoors on relatively dry surfaces and found on wood in crawl spaces. This mold is common in mattress dust; and may colonize human skin scales. This mold has poor growth on general fungal media. This mold grows on specialized fungal media with high osmotic pressure. This mold forms very small tan, elevated mold spore colonies. This mold is a known allergen for Type I allergies and there have been reports of a rare human abscess. This mold produces the toxins walleminol, tryptophol and UCA 1064-beta.

Washroom

A room between the work area and the holding area in the equipment decontamination enclosure system. The washroom comprises an airlock.

Wet Cleaning

The process of eliminating contamination from building surfaces and objects by using cloths, mops or other cleaning tools which have been dampened with water as required; and afterwards disposing of these cleaning tools as contaminated waste.

Work Area

Area or areas of the Project where mitigation/remediation is being conducted.

Xerotolerant Fungus

A fungus capable of growing on substrates possessing a low water potential, i.e., water activities below 0.85.

Yeast

A unicellular fungus that multiplies by budding or fission. Various yeasts are commonly identified on air samples. Some yeasts are allergenic. They may cause problems if a person has had previous exposure and developed hypersensitivities. Yeasts are allergenic to susceptible individuals when present in sufficient concentrations.

Zoospore

Motile sporangiospore capable of swimming in water by means of one or two flagella.

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